Sunday, January 12, 2020

A political conflict Essay

For colored citizens prior to the Civil War, freedom was a distant dream as the age-old human history of slavery heightened within the American heartlands even after the Declaration of Independence. When the American nation proudly held a new constitution, it was supposedly a determined effort to uphold a balance of power symbolizing the freedom from political, cultural and moral oppression yet colored individuals were treated as less civilized citizens and slavery was reinforced by and among the rich landowners capable of maintaining numerous slaves. As slavery provided free labor and flourishing the slave trade, African black slaves exported from Africa increased the slave population in the United States by 4 million (US 1860 Census). The Quakers of Pennsylvania as an antislavery force that gained strength throughout the country paved the way for the gradual abolition of slavery in the US northern states. New York and New Jersey became the last Northern states to abolish slavery (Grant 2001). A political conflict however ensued as slavery supporters insisted lifting any barriers to slave trade while sanctioning the acceptance of slavery based on the biblical scriptures as â€Å"God’s plan to Christianize† the Africans (Hartz 1955). Slavery for the supporters was seen as an economic, social and cultural life which actually lengthened the arguments for the continued adherence to slave labor. Divisive means were also used to promote scientific experiments to demonstrate the superiority of the whites and the inferiority of the blacks (Colley 1859), where anatomical proportions of the brain justify blacks doing hard labor which upon careful contrast does not measure up to the actual inequalities committed within the period. As the debate on slavery grew, disrespect for the law also rose. Sooner than expected, the American slaves who were ill-treated began to resort to acts of violence like burnings barns, arson and even murder. The famous acts of rebellion in Saint Dominique (1790’s) and Virginia (1800’s) paved the way for the 1831 rebellion that killed sixty whites in Virginia tougher slave codes and prohibitions for the slaves that was heavily emphasized in William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator as provided by Tocqueville. No amount of compromise could weed out the institution of slavery except upon the culmination of Lincoln’s election in the 1850’s and the legal implementation of the Thirteenth Amendment (Zinn 2001). II. Blacks living in free states Blacks actually lived a precarious existence within the Free states prior to the Civil War as many were still considered slaves. Many of the free blacks, who were skilled craftsmen, were tolerated because of their abilities as their earnings contributed to the general economy yet none of the free blacks ever rose higher than the status of small tradesmen, builders or nautical employees as they soon became a source of revenue as property taxpayers (Toqueville 1969). Forten, a free black girl from the Northern states gained education in Salem and observed that runaway slaves in Boston were treated as mere slaves and returned to their masters instead of being set free (Forten 2000). Although conditions were far better for the Blacks in the Northern states, very few blacks had their voices heard. Segregated facilities still existed in the North and they were usually denied entrance to the best hotels and restaurants (Jordan 1995, 218). Although schools in New England were usually integrated, those in the Midwest were generally not and economic discrimination continued as the Blacks fought to compete with large numbers of recent European immigrants for job opportunities and almost always lost (Cartmell 2004). During this same period, Norfolk’s free blacks frequently helped enslaved African-Americans to buy their freedom, and in a few instances became slave owners themselves (Toqueville 1969). Harsh laws soon prevailed as freedoms enjoyed by free blacks were soon curtailed because they were still unable to vote. The blacks were often stereotyped as unruly citizens that soon led other free blacks to move further north and help their relatives escape from increasing mistreatment. III. Blacks in the Army In the battle for the emancipation of slavery, slaves contributed to their freedom by laboring and rallying behind the scenes. At the onset of war, the free Black Virginians supported the Confederacy even though they were treated as inferiors and lived in a state of fear. Many were motivated to work with the Confederate States with the hope that someday restrictions against them would be lifted while anticipating a post war gratitude from the white counterparts they fought with (Jordan 1995, 216). The efficiency of the army during the Civil War also saw slaves working as cooks, nurses, hospital attendants, blacksmiths, etc and not getting any pay while free blacks however who served the army were paid the same rate as privates (Cartmell 2004, 176). Less than a dozen African Americans actually served in combat, one of those who did was Holt Collier who served as a sharp shooter and cavalryman of the Texas Brigade (Cartmell, 2004). Thus suffice for us to say that the Blacks fought behind enemy lines as soldiers and were inspired by their involvement yet many were denied enlistment. IV. Blacks who remained in the confederate states Prior to the Civil War, black slaves in Louisiana enjoyed certain privileges that addressed their needs as slaves like being able to sue their masters for abuse (Edge and Downs 2003). Free Blacks were free to own property and conduct business while enjoying liberties absent from other Southern states while slaves were permitted to celebrate their African culture at the markets (edge and Downs 2003). In Virginia, Blacks were criticized for being indifferent to the success of the Southern rebellion as a few free blacks pretended to be slaves in order to gain urban employment like Jim Butler who worked at Richmond’s Exchange Hotel (Jordan 1995, 215). For most Blacks during the period, social injustice prevailed distressingly as slaveholdings in the vast majority of the Southern states continued. Treatment bordered from harsh to inhumane as slavery allowed the master to punish the blacks who failed to perform his duties as related in Stampp, â€Å"Now, I speak what I know, when I say it is like ‘casting pearls before swine’ to try to persuade a negro to work. He must be made to work, and should always be given to understand that if he fails to perform his duty he will be punished for it (Stampp 1956). Slave overseers were authorized to whip the non compliant slaves while free blacks were monitored well by patrols. Escapees were either maimed of killed as slaves were at risk of loosing their family members to punishing masters according to Stampp. Slave-breeding was encouraged to encourage the economic interest of Southern planters for easy access to black workers to retain whole black families to work for them (Loveland 1986). As a backlash to the Southerners who mistreated their black slaves, many Southern blacks fought for the Confederate cause as a patriotic duty in part and as slaves in full. Yet for many who knew and acknowledged the Northerners cause, most Black soldiers in the Confederate states fled to the Northern lines and fought with them. The slave’s knowledge proved important in winning the war as their familiarity became an advantage for the Northern regiment. V. Life after the war When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, it heavily marked the end of slavery and thereby freeing nearly four million slaves in America (grant 2001). But the history of unfair treatment of the US on its own people easily portrayed hypocrisy on its citizens as Blacks remained objects of racial discrimination. It goes into reason that politicians used their might to support the rich sectors’ relevant refusal to grant equal rights to blacks. Another point of discussion was the political agenda behind the support for the anti-slavery campaigns when civil rights and voting rights became an important issue. Granting the Black community access to their own rights would naturally mean higher pay for the earners and lower profits for the capitalists. While supportive of the anti-slavery, political leaderships, not wanting to loose the support of their corporate and rich allies despite knowledge of unfair treatment would seek to ignore such acts. Such was the extent and tentacles of power used for gains that demean the spirit of the Declaration of Independence (Hartz 1955). V. The fight for equality for the next 100 years As a wave of democracy rose to deafening heights, Black struggle for acceptance rose to free them from the binding ties of slavery (Markoff 1996, 163). Although slavery was emancipated, marginalized sectors continue to insist on freedom from mockery and racial segregation based on skin color (Loveland 1996). Struggles continued as schools in the South refused to adapt to integration that led to riots commandeered by the blacks held in opposition against the whites who refused desegregation and tolerate intimidation and murders led by its famous Ku Klux Klan movement (Zinn 2001). Few of the KKK’s activities received massive media attention until the murder of a 14 year old Emmet Till in 1955 that led to a confrontation against issues of racism. As women gained equal rights in 1960’s, racial discrimination slowly ebbed that gave way to several centuries of struggle fr the blacks to gain a state of freedom. VI. Conclusion Why slavery had to be ended by extreme force? If it were probably left to the government the rights of the ordinary slaves would have been left as it was. Heavy opposition and criticism did not bring an end to slavery. Even the national government who endorsed anti-slavery Republicans into office to resolve the issue was most of the time indecisive. The slave- owning southerners and the anti-slavery northerners could not see eye to eye on the ultimate extinction of slavery. In the 1850’s open hostilities were already brimming on several states which finally triggered hostile actions. Although many favored and sought some sort of a compromise, the stronger point of rejection for one was triggered by fear that a conspiracy is threatening to bring down the American republic. Disagreements arise to a crescendo as political parties split and Lincoln’s war goals came into light to solve the problem by means of force when no alternative action could be seen to solve the conflict. Greed for power was the root of such warfare nurtured among many that sought to restrict freedom and pursued rampant acts of discrimination. Such tentacles of power used for corporate gains demean the spirit of independence in this nation’s history. Bibliography Cartmell, Donald. 2004. The Civil War Up Close: Thousand of Curious, Obscure and Fascinating Facts. Career Press. Colley, Thomas. 1859. Civilized America. Bradbury and Evans. Edge, John T. and Downs, Tom. 2003. New Orleans. Lonely Planet. Forten, Charlotte L. 2000. A Free Black Girl Before the Civil War: The Diary of Charlotte Forten, 1854. Capstone Press. Grant, Donald L. 2001. The Way It was in the South: The Black Experience in Georgia. Atlanta: University of Georgia Hartz, Louis. 1955. The Liberal Tradition in America: An Interpretation of American Thought Since the Revolution. New York: Harcourt. Jordan, Ervin L. 1995. Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia. Virginia: University of Virginia. Loveland, Anne C. 1986. Lilian Smith, A Southerners Confronting the South: A Biography. Baton Rouge: Lousisiana State University. Markoff, John. 1996. Waves of Democracy: Social Movements and Political Change. Pine Forge Press. Stampp, Kenneth M. 1956. The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South. Survey Tocqueville, Alexis. 1969. Democracy in America, eds. J. P. Mayer, trans. George Lawrence. New York: Harper Collins. Zinn, Howard. 2001. People’s History of the United States. New York: Harper Collins.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

The Dangers of Overusing Computers - 720 Words

Computers have been around for many years and have helped our society grow and communicate with each other from long distance. According to Claudia Miclaus from â€Å"The Harmful Influence of the Computer,† computers are commonly used everywhere such as in school, at home, businesses and so on (Miclaus 1). Though the computer is very helpful to our society, computers can actually cause mental and physical health problems as well as social disorders. Most people that use a computer often are in danger of risky serious mental and physical health. Computers can cause major mental health problems such as anxiety. Miclaus states that most people that often use computers often have anxiety, low energy, emotional instability, and lack of work efficiency (2). Emotional conflict can lead to affecting a person’s daily life and the people he or she interacts with. Most people that suffer from anxiety, depression, or loneliness often go to the computer to forget their problems they may be facing in their lives. Joanna Saisan, M.S.W., Melinda Smith, M.A., Lawrence Robinson, and Jeanne Segal Ph.D. from â€Å"Internet and Computer Addiction† quotes, â€Å"†¦too much time online can make things worse† (Saisan M.S.W. et al. 2). Most people that over use computers often have difficultly controlling their emotions. Computers can also lead to physical health problems such as strains on muscles and the risk of obesity. Tina Sieber from â€Å"5 Reasons Working With Computers Is Bad For You How to Stay Healthy,†Show MoreRelatedIs Technology A Powerful Tool? Today s Society?838 Words   |  4 PagesThe Effects Overusing Technology Technology is a powerful tool in today’s society. Most people own some sort of technology and use it on a daily basis whether it be a cell phone, computer, GPS, or a tablet. Technology helps us in many different ways by being able to complete tasks easier, and be connected to people we cannot see daily. Text messages, emails, apps like Snapchat, Skype, or FaceTime help us stay connected to people far or near. There is an app for almost anything you need on mostRead MoreThe Effects Of Internet Technology On Society s Society Essay903 Words   |  4 PagesThe Effects of Overusing Technology Technology is a powerful tool in today’s society. Most people own some sort of technology and use it on a daily basis, whether it be a cell phone, computer, GPS, or a tablet. Technology helps us in many different ways by being able to complete tasks easier, and be connected to people we cannot see daily. Text messages, emails, apps like Snapchat, Skype, or FaceTime helps us stay connected to people far or near. Wireless internet has allowed internet accessRead MoreThe Double Edged Sword We Call Technology1098 Words   |  5 Pagescommunication, mental illnesses, environmental issues, and other ways. Today, it is not only recommended, but it is almost demanded that we have the latest technological gadgets in the industry. These things involve technologies such as phones, computers, tablets, and things that we need in our everyday lives. Notice how I said the word need? According to Miriam-Websters online dictionary the definition of the word â€Å"need† is â€Å"a physiological or psychological requirement for the well-being of an organism†Read MoreThe Negative Side Of Social Media886 Words   |  4 Pagessocial networks are changing what we define â€Å"social†. Instead of face-to-face communication, today’s generation speaks through technology such as, texting. I have to agree with the negative side though because the internet actually has much more dangers rather than help. In conclusion, social media is about similar to a drug because, it changes our personalities, takes us off-task, and exposes us to the dangerous people. As I mentioned, drugs like social networks will give a change to our personalitiesRead MorePros and Cons of Using Electronic Gadgets in Studying1694 Words   |  7 PagesSome scholars actually have stated that our brains are evolving and changing due to exposure–repeated exposure–to various activities on the computer. These changes have impacts on the traditional teaching-learning situations in classrooms and schools–particularly if one want to keep or focus the attention of students. In short, these so-called traditional teaching-learning style and practices might not be effective for the roaring digital minds. Does the use of digital technology really improveRead MoreThe Dangers Of Too Much Technology1296 Words   |  6 Pagesas the amount of human interaction that occurs in the classroom. In recent years, there has been a growth in technology within classrooms. Currently, technology has begun to dominate various teaching methods throughout the education system. â€Å"The dangers of too much technology in education† article authored by Cody Laplante talks about Khan Academy, a non-profit organization that provides schools with online video lectures and expounds on how video lectures are being adopted as a new means of teachingRead MoreThe Negative Effects of Social Networking on Teenagers1547 Words   |  6 Pagesfor them. It is true that the social network is a decent method to communicate with friends. However, social networking has negative effects on teenagers in regard to their academic outcomes, their socialization, and their behavior. First of all, overusing social networking in adolescences has direct impact on academic outcomes. Nowadays, social networking has turn into norm for teenagers. Some teens think that it is necessary to participate in all or some social networking sites in order to maintainRead MoreVirtual Reality and the Gaming Industry1363 Words   |  6 Pages(Biocca and Levy 1995). Constantly using virtual reality will cause isolation from the societies because the person already made his or her own social area which only exists in the virtual world. VR will provide a communication environment in which the dangers of deception and the benefits of creativity are amplified beyond the levels that humans currently experience in their interpersonal interactions (Biocca and Levy 1995). It could lead to low self-esteem, feelings of worthlessness and insignificanceRead MoreHow Technology Has Changed Our Life1988 Words   |  8 Pagesinternet allows us to perform many tasks for example, writing a research report or listen to the latest justin bieber song. So are we taking the internet for granted and not acknowledging everything it does for us, or are we taking advantage of it by overusing it? Technology is seen as a method that helps everyone from all around the world to stay in touch with their significant others, but Tanya Schevitz, who is a spokesperson for, â€Å"Reboot’s National Day of Unplugging,† made some research and came toRead MoreImpact Of Technology On Society : University Of Windsor Abstract Technology1766 Words   |  8 Pagesdramatically affected the way we live in this present society. From entertainment devices such as the television, communication devices such as the iPhone, life-saving devices such as defibrillators and educational devices such as Microsoft and Apple computers, technology appears to have numerous benefits in certain fields of human life. Today, technology and human lifestyle are like a set that cannot be separated. According to research conducted by technology enthusiast Lulu Chang, the average human spends

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Fast Food Is The Reason For Obesity - 955 Words

Fast food is the reason to blame for obesity. Food made and prepared in a matter of minutes should certainly raise some flags. ---- Roberto De Vogli states in â€Å"†globesization’: ecological evidence on the relationship between fast food outlets and obesity among 26 advanced economies† that â€Å" the diffusion of ‘fast food restaurants’ resulting from rapid global market integration (Hawkes 2009) and trade liberalization policies (Thow and Hawkes 2009) seems to be one of the key contributing factors behind the sharp rise in obesity†(395-396). Getting greasy foods for dirt cheap and consuming they quickly can certainly cause harm. Whereas the fast food industry is good for the economy, one can prevent obesity by using healthy eating habits given that one can avoid it by not eating fast food. Fast food plays a big part in today’s economy. Toby Parcel states in â€Å"One Firm, Two Labor Markets: The Case Of McDonalds in The Fast-Food Industry† that â€Å" the role that this industry plays in our nation’s economy is substantial and is expected to increase through the remainder of this century as the shift of our economic base from an industrial to a service orientation nears completion†(30). Most of today’s jobs have moved towards a service based economy and â€Å"the service sector is now two-thirds of the U.S. economy and of the 2.3 million new jobs created between November 1982 and February 1984, 70% were added in the retail and fast-food Industries†(Parcel 30). So without the service sectorShow MoreRelatedIs Fast Food Really The Main Reason For Childhood Obesity?907 Words   |  4 PagesIs fast food really the main reason for the rise in childhood obesity? No, it is not their fault. In fact, I believe the main reason for child hood obesity is the parents. 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My answer for this argument is No. I think that whether people eat fast food or not is an individualRead MoreObesity Fast Food Nation Essay661 Wo rds   |  3 PagesFast Food Nation Obesity has grown into a rampant issue all over the United States, over the past few decades. Fast foods also have increased their outlets in the nation, in turn, depicting a success in the business venture. It is clear that fast foods have become quite cheap in comparison to healthy, homemade meals. Subsequently, people have turned to eat fast foods for economic reasons. Convenience is yet another reason behind people’s high indulgence in eating fast foods other than healthy,Read MoreFast Food1018 Words   |  5 PagesToday, many people eat fast food instead of home made food. The reason is that fast food is fast, cheap and convenient. However, at the same time, fast food is contributing to a big social problem in the U.S., which is obesity, and recently some people are beginning to sue the fast food companies for causing their obesity. Should the fast food companies have responsibility for Americans obesity? My answer for this argument is No. I think that whether people ea t fast food or not is an individualRead MoreHow Fitness Can Overcome Fast Food642 Words   |  3 Pages Anytime you hear the word obesity, you can almost bet the two words â€Å"fast food† will not follow too far behind. For some odd reason, people of the society seem to think eating fast food causes the large rate of obesity. At the end of the day, obesity is caused by several things and not just eating fast food. While it is true that fast food is easy to reach, good to taste, and cheap when it comes to the budget, obesity can still be lowered by simply working out and staying fit. The government hasRead MoreFood And Hospitality Investigation Questions1231 Words   |  5 PagesFood and Hospitality investigation Question 1: What are the health issues that come with fast food? Question 2: How is fast food being marketed to children? Question 3: Does fast food play a role in obesity? Introduction Fast food is food that is already cooked so there isn’t much of a waiting time. This is why fast food is so appealing instead of spending hours over an oven making a meal you don’t even need to get out of your car to get it. Fast food has been around for nearly a century now, butRead MoreThe Dangers Of Being Big1398 Words   |  6 Pagesfor the I-search paper is Obesity and the foods which cause it. The reason why I chose this topic Is because I wanted to learn more about the food which leads us to become obese, also the dangers of being over weight. Another why I chose this topic is because I think its interesting that our country isn’t doing much about this epidemic of obesity. Also I wanted to go more in depth about the food industry and what they are doing in order to sell less fattening food. Fast Food Restaurant, are they doingRead MoreChildhood Obesity And Its Effects On America1394 Words   |  6 PagesHave you ever wondered what are the major causes of obesity? The CDC (2017) states that one out of every five children in the U.S. are overweight or obese, and this number is continuing to rise. Wilson (2016) states that many children who are obese develop health complications, such as joint, gallbladder, and sleeping problems. The majority of children who are obese as kids tend to be obese as adults. Reason being, many children develop bad eating habits by learning from their surroundings. WhenRead MoreMan Vs. Food : Fast Food Can Contribute To Childhood Obesity1267 Words   |  6 Pages Man vs. Food: Fast Food Can Contribute to Childhood Obesity The United States of America has always been a safe and well-constructed country. Over the past years, it has tried to progress in numerous ways. However, America is suffering daily from obesity issues that can be prevented. America is becoming uncontrollable when it comes down to the consumption of too much fast food. When fast food was introduced to Americans, it had many advantages. These advantages have suddenly converted into disadvantagesRead MoreObesity : How Obesity Affects Your Life?938 Words   |  4 Pages How Obesity Affect Your Life? Bassam Zedan Jefferson Community and Technical College How Obesity Affect Your Life? In the United States today, obesity has become an enormous problem. In the last three decades, the number of people overweight has increased dramatically. Obesity effects the individual carrying the extra weight around, of course, but it also affects society as it is left up to the government and other health care facilities to address these issues and treat

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Human Condition free essay sample

The Bible begins with the story of Adam and Eve, who are soon expelled from the Garden of Eden for eating from the tree of knowledge. Accordingly, Adam and Eve are enlightened of their humanness. This new knowledge sets them apart from other creatures of the world. After their expulsion from the Garden, Adam and Eve are forced to toil and procreate-two â€Å"labors† that characterize the Human Condition. The tale of Hester and Dimmesdale recounts that of Adam and Eve because, in both stories, sin results in expulsion and suffering. Yet it also leads to knowledge, particularly the knowledge of what it is to be human. The Scarlet Letter emphasizes the association between sin, knowledge, and the Human Condition. Hester is ushered into a sort of exile while wearing the scarlet letter, her punishment for adultery. She no longer worries as much about appeasing the desires of society. This leads to her thinking more boldly about society and herself. We will write a custom essay sample on Human Condition or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page â€Å"The scarlet letter was her passport into regions where other women dared not tread. Shame, Despair, Solitude! These had been her teachers,—stern and wild ones,—and they had made her strong, but taught her much amiss† (Hawthorne 134). Hester’s punishment leads her into a â€Å"moral wilderness† lacking rules or guidance. This is ironic in that her punishment was intended to aid in her atonement, but instead leads her even farther astray. Hester’s mind is amidst a struggle with the aftermath of her sin. Her contemplation of her sinfulness leads to feelings of affinity and an understanding of others. She begins to do public service by bringing food to the poor, nursing the sick, and becomes a source of aid in times of trouble. These actions make it appear as though Hester may be accepted regardless of her sin. However, the Puritan superiors view all sin as a threat to the community that should be punished and suppressed. Throughout the story, Hester is portrayed as intelligent and capable, but not extraordinary. By doing these services to her society, Hester has found a way to assuage her need for redemption. Reverend Dimmesdale was the counterpart in Hester’s adultery, but his sin remained hidden until his death. The knowledge of his sin is unknown to all but himself and Hester. To Dimmesdale his sin is an affliction to which he can find no rest. He attempts to find treatment in his burden by holding late-night vigils, fasting, and even scourging himself with a whip. His struggles allow him to empathize with human weakness. The hindrance of his sin gives him â€Å"sympathies so intimate with the sinful brotherhood of mankind, so that his heart vibrated in unison with theirs† (95). Dimmesdale reaches a new understanding of how sin can affect others. This new empathy draws out Dimmesdale’s most powerful and impassioned sermons. Roger Chillingworth is another character agitated by sin. When Chillingworth first arrives in the colony he deceives the townspeople and tells them he is a physician. His primary sin is that of vengeance. He vows he will find the man that Hester committed adultery with, and that he will have revenge. Completely opposite of Hester, Chillingworth’s mind is at peace with his sin. His body, however, becomes more and more deformed as time goes on, portraying that his need for vengeance is causing an outward effect. It soon become evident that his desire for revenge is boundless, I will hunt this man as I have hunted truth in books; as I have searched for gold in alchemy. There is a sympathy that will make me conscious of him. I shall see him tremble. I shall feel myself shudder, suddenly and unexpectedly. Sooner or later he will be mine (50). While sin leads to important self-discoveries for Hester and Dimmesdale, it is not as great for Chillingworth. Revenge becomes his only aspiration and he dies within a year of Dimmesdale’s death, his purpose for living gone. Chillingworth brings no good out of his sin. He simply continues his torment of Dimmesdale until the end of his life. Hester and Dimmesdale ponder their own sinfulness, attempt to learn from their sins, and try to reconcile with their lived experiences.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Women And Spirituality Essays - Womens Rights, Feminist Philosophy

Women And Spirituality What we find as an original response to existences meaning is the belief in a greater being or higher power, eg. God, that we serve and obey in the trade for a fruitful, everlasting life. This can be connected to the theory of the Earth-Mother. The female in nature was intended to represent reoccurring life. Ancient people held the belief that they would return to the body of the womb of mother earth and then be given a new life. This ancient belief is similar to our own when compared. The view of the religious world can give meaning and purpose to the lives of the people as it gives them hope. Hope that if they live their lives as God had intended for them, they will be granted entrance into heaven, an everlasting, peaceful place. It gives people meaning as to what they should do with their lives. The religious view also brings order in people's lives. Purpose in someone's life is also introduced in the world view; they can go to church and have the holy rituals which every religion practices. This may offer people a sense of purpose in their life. Religion cannot be contained by a certain definition because religion is, simplistically enough, what you want it to be. No one can write a definition of religion as it is really just personal opinion. Religion can be the way you live your life, but for someone else it may just be another word in their vocabulary. With the advent of the feminist movement, the role of women in all parts of society has come under increasing scrutiny. One area of recent controversy is the role of women in the Christian Church. Some churches whose traditions and practices are less rigidly tied to Biblical doctrines have begun placing women in leadership positions such as pastor or teacher. Other churches which interpret the Bible more literally have been slow to adopt such changes. Most Commentators agree that man and woman are both equally a reflection of God's image; the word man here is used as a synonym for humanity. Adam and Eve were also given joint dominion over creation. The role of the man is leadership, while the role of woman is as a source of strength and support. If a person wants to understand the Christian authority of a man over his wife, he must consider how Christ demonstrated his leadership as head over the Church. Primarily, he gave his life for his church, not using force or coercion for her submission. Many people would dispute the Bible's relevance to contemporary thought in general, and in particular to the role of women in worship. If the Bible were not written under divine inspiration, a person or practice is not bound by its teachings. He or she can therefore pick and choose whatever corresponds to his/her point of view. However, if the Bible is of divine inspiration, then a cautious consideration of passages relevant to a particular issue must be undertaken. Traditions and customs, that have arisen after the Bible was written, may thus be carefully scrutinized. Such practices may or may not prove sound after comparison with scripture. If women are not allowed to have a voice or some kind of input, the church could be loosing a valuable resource of wisdom. If a husband does not consider his wives thoughts and ideas as being important or valid, his family is surely incomplete, dysfunctional and doomed to failure. Therefore, as the church strives to realize Gods purpose for women, we must remember the truths of the scripture and apply them to our present day culture. This will allow men and women to present the Christian message to our world in the most powerful way. Feminist ethics has much to offer Catholicism. For one, the main issues that concern feminist ethics are basically the same ones that make up Catholic identity. That is, how women and men define themselves in society, what means are available to them for attaining their ends- in short inter personal and social relations. Second, the founding principles that guide feminist ethics are rooted in the tradition of natural law, a tradition well known to Catholicism. So,

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Age, Gender Differences free essay sample

The purpose of present study was to investigate the relationship between academic performance and depression among students of University of Gujrat. It was a cross-sectional study. Convenient sampling was used to select sample of 50 males and 50 females. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale was used for the measurement. Findings of study showed that there is a positive relationship between age and academic performance with depression. Chapter I Introduction Introduction Present study was designed to investigate about age and gender differences in’ and relationship with academic performance and depression. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between gender differences ,academic performance and depression among Uog students. Gender Gender is the range of physical, mental, and behavioral characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity. Depending on the context, the term may refer to biological sex (i. e. the state of being male, female or intersex), sex-based social structures (including gender roles and other social roles), or gender identity. We will write a custom essay sample on Age, Gender Differences or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Gender is cultural and is the term to use when referring to women and men as social groups. Sex is biological; use it when the biological distinction is predominant. And according to the World Health Organization, Sex refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women. Gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. Depression Depression is a mental illness in which a person has feelings of sadness, instability, loneliness, hopelessness, worthlessness, and guilt. Depression is a common mental disorder and can be successfully treated. Signs and symptoms include Persistent sad, anxious, or empty feelings Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness Irritability, restlessness Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable, including sex Fatigue and decreased energy Difficulty concentrating, remembering details, and making decisions Insomnia, early-morning wakefulness, or excessive sleeping Overeating, or appetite loss Thoughts of suicide, suicide attempts Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment. Gender and Depression When asked about symptoms of depression, women are more likely to admit to such features than men, a difference usually put down to women being more open and men being more likely to use denial. Similarly, women are more prepared to seek help than men for their depression. A variety of biological, social, and psychological explanations for women’s increased vulnerability to depression also has been evaluated. Research examining hormonal influences has received more attention than biological factors but both have produced inconclusive results and presently do not appear to account for the gender difference in rates (cf. reviews by McGrath et al. , 1990; Rice et al. , 1984; Kornstein, 1997). Academic performance An academic performance is how well someone does during their academics. This means, how well they did with school and all the activities that go along with it. workplace is critical for these individuals, this relationship has not been adequately investigated. Depression is a common disorder that impacts an individuals ability to perform life activities, including those required by the workplace. Academic performance can be viewed as a direct parallel to workforce performance, with students belonging to a unique set of individuals whose ability to perform can be measured on criteria applied by an observer and by self-report. While the prevalence of depression for this group is high and preparation for entry into the workplace is critical for these individuals, this relationship has not been adequately investigated. Many factors affect academic achievement. One of them is depression. Depression has a high prevalence and relationship with both memory and academic achievement. Depression indices are: persistent sadness, discouragement, loss of self-worth and interest in daily activities. True depression in teens is often difficult to diagnose because normal adolescent behavior is marked by both up and down moods. These moods may alternate over a period of hours or days. Depression has an effect on academic achievement. Research has indicated that depressed mood is negatively related to academic achievement. Objectives The objectives of the present study was to assess the relationship between age, gender and academc performance with depression among University students. Hypothesis Following hypothesis were formulated for present study: Gender and academic performance has a positive effect on depression. If depression will increases acdamic perfomance will decrease. Variables Age, Gender and Acdademic performance were independet variables and Depression was dependent variable in present study. Operational definition The World Health Organization, defines depression as: â€Å"Depression is a common mental disorder, characterized by sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, feelings of tiredness and poor concentration. †(By Martin) Conceptual definition â€Å"In this study conceptual definition of Depression is total score on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. † Literature Review In the following paragraphs, there is a review of the literature pertaining to Depression, the hypothesized predictors of Depression and Academic performance ,the predicted outcomes of Depression, and the relationship between Academic performance and Depession. Robert (2008) conduct the study on the relationship between depressed mood and academic performance (measured in terms of grade point average) in U. S. middle and high schools. Utilizing data from AddHealth, the dissertation establishes Ordinary Least Squares, Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS), and individual and sibling fixed effect regressions that attempt to control for confounding factors, including student motivation, personality characteristics, and parental inputs that are unobserved but may influence both mental health and achievement. Study findings indicate that students who report feeling depressed do not perform as well academically as non-depressed students. Additionally, the degree of GPA impact increases with the severity of reported depression. Students reporting either depressed feelings â€Å"most or all of the time† or symptoms consistent with major depression suffer GPA reductions of 0. 06 to 0. 84 grade points. In addition, middle schoolers and certain minority groups are hardest hit by depression, and persistent depression has a negative impact on grades. Dana Ahmed conducta study on Depressive Symptoms and Academic Performance of North Carolina College Students. the total number of student was 1,280 and used regression analyses were performed to examine associations between depressive symptoms and academic performance in this group. the result of this study was regression analyses were performed to examine associations between depressive symptoms and academic performance in this group. A study conduct by Alketa, Steven Clayton(2005) was on the relationship between depression and the academic performance of undergraduate students. Data regarding academics, health and productivity for students from Western Michigan University were obtained from the University’s Registrar’s Office, the campus Health Center and a survey delivered to the students. The primary outcomes of interest were the student’s grade point average (GPA), an objective, observer generated  measure of academic productivity, and the students’ self-reported academic performance. the result indicate the Diagnosed depression was associated with a 0. 49 point, or half a letter grade, decrease in student GPA, Depressed students reported a pattern of increasing interference of depression symptoms with academic performance. With respect to the study on Evaluating the Relationship between Gender, Age, Depression and Academic Performance among Adolescents by Busari, A. O. (2012) the purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between age, depression and academic performance among adolescents. The study was carried out among 1200 students (600 male and 600 female) in the age range 15-19 years. The instrument used for data collection was the Beck depression Inventory (21 item BDI). The analysis of data used correlation coefficient and t-test. The results showed that 26. 5% of the boys and 30. 7% of the girls were depressed and that depression and academic performance were significantly correlated, r = -0. 24, p? 0. 000. Also, based on results of the present study, age and academic performance were significantly correlated (r = 0. 25, p? 0. 000). In addition there was significant difference of academic performance between male and female, (t (1) = -5. 51, p = 0. 000). Nancy, Bonnie Erin(2004) was conduct a study on Gender differences and risk factors for depression in adolescence The current study used longitudinal data (N? 1322; 648 males, 674 females) from adolescents ages 12 to 19 years (in 1994) to investigate gender differences in and risk factors for depressive symptoms and major depressive episodes (MDEs). The sample had participated in three waves of Canada’s National Population Health Survey (1994, 1996, and 1998). Results showed that although there was not a statistically significant increase in depressive symptoms in early adolescence, there was a robust gender difference in the levels of depressive symptoms and the prevalence of MDE, with girls more affected than boys. Mirowsky J Ross CE. (1992) Was conduct a study on Age and depression and the aim of this study was to find out the the relationship between age and depression is analyzed, looking for effects of maturity, decline, life-cycle stage, survival, and historical trend. The data are from a 1990 sample of 2,031 U.S. adults and a 1985 sample of 809 Illinois adults. The results show that depression reaches its lowest level in the middle aged, at about age 45. The fall of depression in early adulthood and rise in late life mostly reflects life-cycle gains and losses in marriage, employment, and economic well-being. Depression reaches its highest level in adults 80 years old or older, because physical dysfunction and low personal control add to personal and status losses. Malaise from poor health does not create a spurious rise of measured depression in late adulthood. However, some of the differences among age groups in depression reflect higher education in younger generations, and some reflect different rates of survival across demographic groups that also vary in their levels of depression. Mary Kay ONeil William J. Lancee (1985) conducted a study on Sex differences in depressed university students and in this study author select Depressed males and females from a consecutive sample of students attending a university psychiatric service (N=183) and a sample from the general student population (n=55) were compared to determine why more females (ratio 2? 1) seek help for depression. It was found that this sex difference was due neither to differential prevalence of depression nor to differences in symptom expression or social behavior, but rather to contrasting attitudes toward emotional problems and psychiatric help. Women recognize physical concomitants of depression as indicative of emotional problems and more readily accept the need for psychiatric help. Men appear not to connect physical symptoms with emotional difficulties. In this chapter, the researcher’s major purpose was to present background information on the dependent variable,Depression and to present background information on the three independent variables. The three independent variables are: age, gender and Academic performance. In varying degrees, all of the independent variables, were reported in the literature as having positive correlations with depression. Rationale of the study The purpose of this study was to find out age and gender difference in depression and academic performance with relation to  depression among students of University of Gujrat. By exploring these variables, it is hoped to add to the body of comprehension about the relationship between age, gender differences and academic performance with depression. The present study can be important addition in literature, concerning gender differences in depression. Conducting study on age, gender differences and academic performance related depression in Pakistani society can contribute in the field of basic research. Present study can be helpful in further researches . This study is also helpful for the reader to understand the relationship between age, gender differences and academic performance with relation to depression among university students. It can also support other researches and generate useful knowledge for students belonging to the discipline of psychology. There are very little research attempts to explore the relationship between age, gender differences and academic performance with relation to depression of students in Gujrat. So this study is unique because it examines the age, gender differences and academic performance relted to depression among students of University of Gujrat. Chapter II Method Method In the present study it is a multi-independent sample design . it is a independent sample design. 100 students from university of Gujrat were selected as a sample of B. S( 2nd and 8th ) semester . A standardized instrtrument was used for data collection. That is the Depression Anxiety Stress scale. Sample The present study consisted on the population from university of Gujrat. B. B. A and Sociology department were included for collection of data. Convenient sampling was used to select 100 student from university of Gujrat among them 50 were male and 50 were female. There age range from 18 to 26. There qualification was B. S(hons). Depression Anxiety Stress Scale The DASS is a set of three self-report scales designed to measure the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress. The DASS was constructed not merely as another set of scales to measure conventionally defined emotional states, but to further the process of defining, understanding, and measuring the ubiquitous and clinically significant emotional states usually described as depression, anxiety and stress. The DASS should thus meet the requirements of both researchers and scientist-professional clinicians. DASS scales contains 14 items, divided into subscales of 2-5 items with similar content. The Depression scale assesses dysphoria, hopelessness, devaluation of life, self-deprecation, lack of interest/involvement, anhedonia, and inertia. (Lovibond, S. H. Lovibond, P. F. 1993 ). Demographic sheet Some demographic variables were included in the present research those were: Age, Gender, Department, CGPA, Semester, Father’s education and Mother’s education. Procedure First step in the present study was to select the population of students from University of Gujrat and select sample from that population.  second, researcher build rapport with students and ask them to fill the questionnaire carefully and respond to each item honestly. Some instructions were given to the respondents before questionnaire handed them over. The instructions were; the whole information will be confidential and only used for the research purpose, it was requested to show serious and careful attitude toward responding in questionnaire, and provide only required information. Researchers face some difficult in collecting data because students were showing non-serious attitude toward giving responses on questionnaire. After completed the data collection researcher thanked to all the respondents who show their cooperation to fill the questionnaire. Chapter III Results Results The aim of the present study was to explore the Age, Gender differences and Academic performance with relation to Depression among students of University of Gujrat. A standardized scale was used to measure the Depression among males and females students of University of Gujrat. Linear Regression was used for measuring Age, Gender differences and Academic performance with relation to Depression among University students.